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A Simple, rapid and efficient flame synthesis of ultrafine LiNi0.95-xCoxTi0.05O2 (x = 0.25 and 0.30): a versatile route to synthesize Ni-rich cathode materials for Li-ion batteries

Abstract
A simple, rapid, and efficient flame synthesis method was developed to fabricate LiNi0.95 xCoxTi0.05O2 (x = 0.25 and 0.30) cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. The ignition of the metal nitrate precursors with a reddish flame were completed within 15-20 s. The complete procedure to achieve the LiNi0.95-xCoxTi0.05O2 precursor powder took 30-55 min, which is the simplest as well as the most rapid and efficient way to obtain an analogous Ni-rich, LiNi0.70Co0.30O2 cathode material among the synthesis methods reported thus far. X-ray diffraction confirmed the formation of a single phase of LiNi0.95-xCoxTi0.05O2 (x = 0.25 and 0.30) calcined at 800 °C for 12 hrs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy revealed the ultrafine nature of the particles. SEM showed grains with smooth surfaces and size in the range of 200 nm ? 0.4 μm, and TEM displayed the particles with a size range of 90 nm ? 0.2 μm. The fabricated materials showed a discharge specific capacity of 159 mAh g-1 and 137 mAh g-1 at a 0.1 C-rate for the initial cycle at room temperature for the LiNi0.95-xCoxTi0.05O2 of x = 0.25 and 0.30, respectively. These results suggest that LiNi0.95-xCoxTi0.05O2 synthesized with this facile route shows promising electrochemical activity. Consequently, the flame synthesis technique can be very attractive for the facile fabrication of structurally similar lithiated nickel?cobalt oxides for use as a cathode material for Li-ions batteries that are suitable for mass production.

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